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What Is Criminal Law and Its Objectives In cases when offenses are committed that are detrimental to society, these are called crimes. It is expressed in common law jurisdiction, that a legal concern is committed when a crime disturbs the peace of people and society. The sovereign are represented by government officials as the agents, and it is their responsibility to prosecute offenders. The term plaintiff in practical terms of criminal law is translated as the monarch or people. Criminal law has its major objectives as deterrence and punishment, while civil law is concentrated on individual compensation. The physical act or the actus reur or guilty act and the requisite mental state of which the act is done or mens rea or guilty mind, are the two distinct elements of a criminal offence. As an example in a murder case, the actus reus is the unlawful killing of the person, while the mens rea is the intention or malice to kill or cause grave injury to the person. Under criminal law, defendents would detail their defences in order to lessen or negate their criminal responsibility, and it is this law also that will specify the punishment to be inflicted. Criminal will not require a victim or a victim’s consent in order to prosecute the offender. Be informed also that the consent of the victim cannot be a defence in many crimes and a criminal prosecution can happen even with the objections of the victim. In the common and civil law traditions, criminal law in most jurisdictions is divided into two areas. One is that to address the violations of criminal law, what regulates the process is the criminal procedure. Next is the substantive criminal law that would detail the definition of and punishments for in the different crimes.
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Civil wrongs such as tort or breach of contract as type of crimes are distinguished under criminal law. To regulate the behaviour of individuals and groups in relation to the norms of society at large, criminal law is seen to function this, while civil law is mainly directed at the relationships between private individuals and their rights and obligations based on the law. Several ancient legal systems did not clearly define the distinction between criminal and civil law until the nineteenth century. The English common criminal law of 1750 has become the basic course in criminal law in most U.S. law schools.
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The different kinds of criminal law are arrests and searches, drug crimes, juvenile law, drunk driving, parole, probation, pardons, violent crimes, white collar crimes and military law. Note that criminal law is also known as penal law which is a term used to address to the different rule bodies in certain jurisdictions.